Controlled Foreign Corporation: IRS Guide to IRC 957 Taxation (Board-Certified Tax Law Specialist)

Controlled Foreign Corporation: IRS Guide to IRC 957 Taxation (Board-Certified Tax Law Specialist)

Controlled Foreign Corporation: The Controlled Foreign Corporation rules are very complex. The Internal Revenue Service has revised the tax laws involving foreign corporations, Subpart F Income and GILTI. In recent years, the IRS has taken an aggressive position toward foreign account, assets and corporate reporting compliance. The failure to timely disclose foreign assets (such as foreign corporations) may results in significant fines and penalties. The penalties can be abated with various amnesty programs, such as FBAR Amnesty or FATCA Amnesty — collectively referred to as voluntary disclosure.

Controlled Foreign Corporation 

Understanding the concept of the a controlled corporation can be difficult. The CFC definition is unnecessarily complicated, the examples of CFC tax can be even more confusing and the CFC tax rules are ambiguous as best.

When a foreign corporation has U.S. ties, the IRS can more easily exert tax authority over it. But, without U.S. ties, the IRS had less methods for taxing the foreign corporation. Therefore, the U.S. (as did many other nations) developed the CFC anti-deferral regime.

What is the Purpose of the Regime

The purpose of the CFC is to reduce and eliminate the deferral of certain controlled foreign corporation income.

A controlled foreign corporation is equivalent to a type of IRS workaround. In other words, even when a foreign corporation does not have U.S. sourced income or other ties, the IRS may still be able to tax the U.S. shareholders of the corporation. This occurs when the foreign corporation is deemed a controlled foreign corporation or “CFC.”

With a controlled foreign corporation (CFC), the IRS has authority over U.S. taxpayers who are shareholders of the CFC. The IRS wants to avoid the shareholders from deferring tax. Therefore, the U.S. government developed the Subpart F rules under IRC section 952.

How to Define a CFC (IRC 957)

IRS tax law defines a CFC as a foreign corporation owned by more than 50% by U.S  persons, who each own at least 10% (Attribution Rules apply). If you have a Controlled Foreign Corporation, the IRS tax and reporting rules becomes infinitely more complicated.

 The two primary elements of determining if you have a Controlled Foreign Corporation is when the foreign corporation is:

  • Owned more than 50% by U.S. Persons (aka U.S. Shareholder); and
  • Each U.S. Person owns at least 10% (attribution riles apply).

Once a foreign corporation is deemed a controlled foreign corporation, the tax rules changes, as well as certain reporting requirements in accordance with Form 5471.

The IRS methods for taxing U.S. shareholders of foreign corporations changed significantly in 1962. At this time, Subpart F rules were introduced into the IRC (Internal Revenue Code). The goal of the Subpart F and CFC law was to reduce offshore tax havens, by expanding the U.S. tax anti-deferral regime. As a result of Subpart F, some categories of foreign corporation income is taxable — even if the income has not been distributed. 

Tax Cuts & Jobs Act 

While Controlled Foreign Corporation tax was modified as a result of TCJA (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act), which introduced GILTI (Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income) and IRC 965 transition tax, the general guidelines remain the same.

Controlled Foreign Corporation Examples

While Controlled Foreign Corporations come in many shapes and sizes, there a a few common CFCs we work with at Golding & Golding, in which having U.S. shareholders is the norm. They include:

– A Sociedad Anonima, in which the U.S. Person usually owns 90% of the Foreign Corporation, with a local resident owning 10%

– A Wholly Owned Foreign Corporation such as Hong Kong Ltd., BVI, or Australia PTY Ltd.

– A Foreign Corporation (Even if established just as a Foreign Trust), but is considered a Per Se Corporation under IRC§ 301.7701-2

Who is a U.S. Shareholder?

As provided by the IRS:

“A U.S. shareholder is a U.S. person (defined in IRC 957(c)) who owns directly, indirectly, or constructively 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of stock entitled to vote or 10 percent or more of the total value of all classes of stock entitled to vote in a foreign corporation. IRC 958(a) provides rules for determining direct and indirect stock ownership of a corporation.


IRC 958(b) provides that the constructive ownership rules of IRC 318(a) apply to the extent that the effect is to treat a U.S. person as a U.S. shareholder or a foreign corporation as a CFC. For tax years ending on or before December 31, 2017 IRC 958(b)(4) turned off “downward attribution” which prevented a U.S. person from being treated as owning stock that is owned by a Non-U.S. person. In December, 2017 IRC 958(b)(4) was repealed.


As a result, for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2018 the “downward attribution” under IRC 318(a)(3) does apply to treat U.S. persons as owning the stock of Non-U.S. persons which will have the effect of creating U.S. shareholders and, in turn, CFCs that were not treated as such in prior years.


*Note there are special rules for determining whether a foreign corporation is a specified foreign corporation (SFC) for purposes of IRC 965, which increases the subpart F income of a deferred foreign income corporation (DFIC), a type of SFC, for its last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2018 by the greater of certain of its post-1986 earnings and profits as of November 2, 2017 or December 31, 2017. Under these rules, SFCs include all CFCs and certain other foreign corporations.


Constructive Ownership Rules

There are constructive ownership rules for the ownership of a CFC. This leads indirect shareholders to be attributed ownership of a Controlled Foreign Corporation, even if they do not directly own the shares.

Taxation Rules

The CFC tax rules in accordance with Subpart F allow the IRS to tax certain income of the CFC, even though the corporation is foreign, and the U.S. would have not direct authority over the foreign corporation. As long as there is current year earnings & profit, a U.S. shareholder may be subject tax on the shareholders ratable share of income — even if it was not distributed.

The tax rules involving a CFC can be very complicated in light of the Subpart F income rules.  This is especially true after the introduction of the TCJA. The new Tax Cuts and Jobs Act introduced new international tax rules referred to as GILTI (Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income)

And, while GILTI is not the same as Subpart F income, it is equally complex. If you are concerned about potential CFC income, you may want to speak with an experienced offshore tax lawyer.

Offshore Reporting

Controlled Foreign Corporation Reporting involves the reporting of information and disclosure to the IRS. If a person’s ownership interest meets the Form 5471 reporting requirements.

Form 5471 

When it comes to reporting a CFC, one common international reporting form is form 5471. oftentimes, a U.S. shareholder reports ownership if of a controlled foreign corporation on Form 5471.

Reporting a controlled foreign corporation on Form 5471 can be complex, and is not limited to controlled foreign corporations.. We have prepared two separate summaries to assist you:

What is a Controlled Foreign Corporation?

What is a Controlled Foreign Corporation?

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Common questions we receive about controlled foreign corporations, include:

What is IRC Section 957?

IRC section 957 is the code section in the Internal Revenue Code which details Controlled Foreign Corporations (CFC).

What is CFC IRS?

CFC IRS is just a

Foreign Corporation Tax Reform

In 2018 the tax rules have changed. With the introduction of TCJA, GILTI, and updated Form 5471 reporting requirements, the landscape for reporting Controlled Foreign Corporations has intensified.

Controlled Foreign Corporation Dividends

Dividends are generally taxed in the year they are received. In addition, there may be some Subpart F income for the controlled foreign corporation — even in years when no income was distributed.

Examples of a Controlled Foreign Corporation

Examples of a Controlled Foreign Corporation

What is Subpart F?

Generally, subpart F income is income that is earned within a Controlled Foreign Corporation that is going to be taxed to the U.S. person — whether or not any money was distributed to the U.S. persons.

More Than 50% U.S. Ownership

In order for a Foreign Corporation to be considered a Controlled Foreign Corporation, it must be owned more than 50% by U.S. Persons. It is important to note that if the Foreign Corporation is owned 50% by U.S. Person (one U.S. Person and One Non-U.S. Person each owning 50% of the corporation), it is not considered a Controlled Foreign Corporation, because it is not being ‘controlled’ in the legal sense of the word.

10% Ownership

Beyond the Foreign Corporation being owned more than 50% by U.S. Persons, it must be also be that each of the shareholders within that +50% each own at least a 10% share. In other words, if 6 unrelated U.S. Persons own at least 9% share each, they would technically own 54% of the corporation, but because none of them each own at least 10%, it is not considered to be a Controlled Foreign Corporation (unless attribution rules applied)

What is Attribution IRC (958)?

Attribution is the idea that one person considered to constructively own stock that another person owns only due to the relationship between the two individuals. The main purpose of attribution is to avoid artificially low tax reductions strategies by making sales or transfers between “related” parties. More information can be found in Internal Revenue Code section 958. As provided by the IRS :

Constructive ownership rules apply for determining whether the U.S. person is a U.S. Shareholder and whether a foreign corporation is a CFC, but are not considered in determining the amount of a U.S. Shareholder’s Subpart F inclusion.

– A corporation, partnership, trust or estate that owns more than 50% of the voting stock of a corporation is considered to own 100% of the voting stock of that corporation.

– Stock owned by a non-resident alien individual is not treated as owned by a U.S. person.

– More than one family member can be attributed the same stock. For example, stock owned by a child can be attributed to both a parent and a grandparent.

What is Subpart F Income (IRC 951)

Subpart F income is income that is earned within a Controlled Foreign Corporation that is going to be taxed to the U.S. person — whether or not any money was distributed to the U.S. persons. One of the main purposes behind this law is that in days past,Controlled Foreign Corporations would stockpile money and neither distribute nor issue it as income, dividends, interest, capital gains, etc.. Thereafter, the Controlled Foreign Corporation would issue loans to shareholders (which is not income) and then when it’s time to repay the loan, the company would simply forgive loan (no major detriment to the corporation).

Therefore, the IRS developed subpart F income, which can be very detailed.

The main information is found in code section IRC 951:

Amounts included

In general: If a foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during any taxable year, every person who is a United States shareholder (as defined in subsection (b)) of such corporation and who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock in such corporation on the last day, in such year, on which such corporation is a controlled foreign corporation shall include in his gross income, for his taxable year in which or with which such taxable year of the corporation ends—

(A)the sum of—

(i) his pro rata share (determined under paragraph (2)) of the corporation’s subpart F income for such year,

(ii) his pro rata share (determined under section 955(a)(3) as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975) of the corporation’s previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in less developed countries for such year, and

(iii) his pro rata share (determined under section 955(a)(3)) of the corporation’s previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from foreign base company shipping operations for such year; and

(B) the amount determined under section 956 with respect to such shareholder for such year (but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2)).

But I Did Not Receive any Subpart F Income Distribution

It is immaterial whether the US shareholder of controlled foreign corporation actually received any of the money. That is why the phraseology used by the Internal Revenue Service code is “pro rata share” and “amount determined” vs. “received.” There are certain other factors that are important regarding subpart F income such as whether there is any current earnings and profits (E&P), whether taxes have been paid, and whether dividends have also been issued (these will all impact the complex ordering rules of Subpart F Income)

What is Form 8938

Under current U.S. Tax law, the IRS and U.S. Government have made Foreign Financial Reporting a key enforcement priority.

Form 8938 (Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets) is an IRS Form associated with FATCA (Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act). It is similar to the FBAR, but more detailed in scope as to what has to be filed (Stock Ownership and Actual Income Earned for example). The failure to file this FATCA Form can lead to extensive Fines and Penalties.

CFC Penalties Will Flow Through 8938

There are many penalties a person may be subject to if they have a controlled foreign corporation but did not file properly. These include penalties for not filing of an FBAR or 8938. They also include started properly report Subpart F Income, or filing a form 5471 form 8621 (depending on the nature of a controlled foreign entity/partnership).

Golding & Golding, Board-Certified Tax Specialist 

Golding & Golding represents clients worldwide in over 70-countries exclusively in Streamlined, Offshore and IRS Voluntary Disclosure matters. We have successfully completed more than 1,000 streamlined and voluntary disclosure submissions.

How to Hire Experienced Offshore Counsel?

Generally, experienced attorneys in this field will have the following credentials/experience:

  • Board Certified Tax Law Specialist credential
  • Master’s of Tax Law (LL.M.)
  • Dually Licensed as an EA (Enrolled Agent) or CPA
  • 20-years experience as a practicing attorney
  • Extensive litigation, high-stakes audit and trial experience

Interested in Learning More about Golding & Golding?

No matter where in the world you reside, our international tax team can get you IRS offshore compliant. 

Golding & Golding specializes in FBAR and FATCA. Contact our firm today for assistance with getting compliant.

Golding and Golding, Board-Certified Tax Law Specialist

Golding and Golding, Board-Certified Tax Law Specialist

Golding & Golding: Our international tax lawyers practice exclusively in the area of IRS Offshore & Voluntary Disclosure. We represent clients in 70+ different countries. Managing Partner Sean M. Golding is a Board-Certified Tax Law Specialist Attorney (a designation earned by < 1% of attorneys nationwide.). He leads a full-service offshore disclosure & tax law firm. Sean and his team have represented thousands of clients nationwide & worldwide in all aspects of IRS offshore & voluntary disclosure and compliance during his 20-year career as an Attorney.

Sean holds a Master's in Tax Law from one of the top Tax LL.M. programs in the country at the University of Denver. He has also earned the prestigious IRS Enrolled Agent credential. Mr. Golding's articles have been referenced in such publications as the Washington Post, Forbes, Nolo, and various Law Journals nationwide.
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