- 1 IRS Assessable Foreign Account and Asset Violations
- 2 About Form 3520
- 3 Taxpayer Receives a CP15 Notice of Form 3520 Penalties
- 4 The Attorney Protests Form 3520 Penalties
- 5 Form 3520 Reasonable Cause Letter Rejected LTR 854C
- 6 Would an Appeals Conference Prevent a CDP for a Foreign Gift Penalty?
- 7 Beware that CDP is an End-Game Opportunity
- 8 Form 3520 Penalties & Collection Due Process Hearing
- 9 Litigating Form 3520 Penalty in Tax Court
- 10 Federal Court for Litigating Foreign Gift Penalties
- 11 IRC 6751
- 12 International Tax Lawyers Represent Clients Worldwide
IRS Assessable Foreign Account and Asset Violations
In recent years, the Internal Revenue Service has significantly increased the enforcement of international reporting fines and penalties. Some of the common culprits involve the late or missed filing of Forms 3520, 3520-A, 5471, and Form 8938. The FBAR is also a very common form that results in potential penalties but that form is not technically an IRS form and it is handled separately and differently than the above-referenced forms. With respect to the above-referenced forms, they impact various different investments such as stock and security assets, foreign gifts, trusts, foreign assets, and foreign companies. What makes these types of penalties so dangerous is that they involve international assessable penalties. Unlike other types of penalties, international assessable penalties are issued without going through the typical or deficiency procedures. This means the taxpayers receive notice of the penalty before they have had any opportunity to fight the penalty before they are assessed. There is a different route a person can go in order to try to dispute the penalty but we wanted to walk you through an example of trying to challenge an international assessable penalty to get an idea of how the process works, using Form 3520 as an example:
About Form 3520
When the IRS issues a penalty for not timely or accurately filing a Form 3520, the penalties can be tough. When it comes to foreign gifts, the penalty is usually 25% of the value of the gift. When it comes to trusts, the penalties stagger based on the type of trust transaction involved. When a person receives a Form 3520 Penalty, it is usually in the form of a CP15 Notice. And, in recent years, the IRS has begun aggressively issuing automatically assessed penalties. In the past few years, the IRS has significantly increased the assessment and enforcement of Form 3520 penalties (6039F) — along with several other international information return penalties such as Form 3520-A, Form 8938, and Form 5471. Since these types of penalties are not the result of a tax deficiency (technically they are referred to as ‘assessable penalties‘), there are limited Internal Revenue Service mechanisms available to abate or remove the penalties. And, because the Form 3520 Penalty is the most common (and specifically penalties issued to US persons who received a large gift from a foreign relative) — our international tax lawyers will use Form 3520 Penalties as the basis for this summary about Tax Court and international information reporting penalties — and help you separate fact from fiction when it comes to challenging an IRS foreign gift penalty on Form 3520.
Taxpayer Receives a CP15 Notice of Form 3520 Penalties
Peter receives a gift from his Taiwanese relatives in the amount of $900,000. He hired a CPA — who misunderstood the foreign gift and trust reporting rules — to handle his international tax return. The CPA realizes (after the fact) that Form 3520 should have been filed, so they hire Aaron (a “self-proclaimed tax expert“) to handle the case. The reasonable cause letter is not an IRS form, and Aaron’s firm does not know how to write an effective reasonable letter. The Lawyer slaps together a sloppy Reasonable Cause letter. The letter is received by the IRS and then radio silence.
16 months later, Peter receives a CP15 Notice for $225,000.
26 USC 6039F
The $225,000 penalty was issued based on the penalty is 5% (of the value of the gift) per month — for a maximum of 25%.
The Attorney Protests Form 3520 Penalties
Before it is time to litigate a Form 3520 penalty, the IRS CP15 Notice provides an opportunity to dispute the penalty based on reasonable cause and the CP15 Notice gives the Taxpayer 30 days to respond.
Most CP15 Notices provide the following:
6039F Reasonable Cause
“If you believe you have reasonable cause for your failure to comply, you may send us a written statement (include any documents that will support your position) within 30 days from the date of this notice.
The statement must list all the facts you’re claiming as reasonable cause for the failure, and it must contain a declaration that the statement is made under penalties of perjury.”
The CP15 Notice is from the IRS and the initial protest (pre-appeal) goes back to the IRS for the first round of Reasonable Cause penalty abatement review.
Form 3520 Reasonable Cause Letter Rejected LTR 854C
If the Form 3520 protest letter is rejected, the Taxpayer will usually receive a follow-up Letter 854C — and here is where it can get (unnecessarily) complicated. At this stage, the Taxpayer can submit a supplemental response to their initial protest letter that was sent to the IRS — if they have “additional information” to present to the IRS Office of Appeals (sometimes, the IRS will request additional information and the supplemental letter will go to the IRS and not the Office of Appeals — which can impact the overall strategy Taxpayer seeks to pursue). If not, the IRS Office of Appeals may reconsider the request and may schedule a conference with Appeals — or not — depending on the specifics of the presentation and officer assigned to the matter.
The Form 3520 penalty may be abated (removed) based on the letter alone. When this type of abatement occurs, a 21C Letter is issued. Taxpayer should work with their counsel to assess the different strategies and how to proceed on this issue before submitting the appeal letter.
Here are two examples of letters we received from different clients with extensive Form 3520 Gift Penalties (each case is different and no outcome is guaranteed):
21C Letter Example Language (Protest Letter Response from IRS)
“We changed the civil penalty amount that we previously charged.
Our action is the result of your inquiry of
Account balance before this change: $xxx,xxx.xx
Decrease in Failure to File Form 3520 to Report Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts or Bequests penalty -$xxx,xxx.xx
As a result you don’t owe us any money, nor are you due a refund.”
*This letter was the outcome of a protest letter only.
1278 Letter Example Language (Post-Protest Letter from IRS Office of Appeals)
“I completed my review of your request to adjust the penalties assessed against you. Based on the information submitted, I am pleased to advise you the penalties will be abated (removed) in full. When this action has been completed, you will receive an adjustment notice from the Service Center, which originally assessed the penalty.
If you have any additional questions, please contact the person shown at the top of this letter.
**This letter was the outcome of a protest letter and a follow-up appeals conference.
In this situation, the Taxpayer will have saved significantly in attorney’s litigation fees (and time) than if the Taxpayer had chosen a different strategy, such as going to the Tax Court — which is costly and comes with its own set of risks.
Would an Appeals Conference Prevent a CDP for a Foreign Gift Penalty?
If the Taxpayer may want to litigate Form 3520 penalties in the future, a proper strategy should be developed from the outset. If Taxpayer submits the follow-up to the initial protest and has a conference with appeals — but is still rejected — and does not pay the penalty — they will at some point in the future receive a Notice of Lien or Intent to Levy — which opens the door to pursue a CDP. The IRS can then take the position that the prior conference with appeals was the bite at the apple and the CDP would be rejected. Therefore, before sending any post-protest letter to the IRS, Taxpayers and their counsel should review the pros and cons of each approach.
Beware that CDP is an End-Game Opportunity
The benefits of a Collection Due Process hearing is that it permits the Taxpayer to essentially get two bites of the apple — and it opens the door to go to Tax Court on multiple different arguments. But, the Taxpayer usually has to wait until they receive a Notice of Federal Tax Lien or Intent to Levy before they can pursue a CDP. To the inexperienced international tax attorney — these are just hurdles the Taxpayer must overcome in order to get to the Collection Due Process Hearing stage.
But, to the people involved — these are real concerns that impact their day-to-day life.
Notice of Federal Tax Lien
Imagine the situation in which a person plans on selling their home or applying for a line of credit — and then they receive a Form 3520 penalty notice. Some aggressive tax attorney convinces them to wait until the Collection Due Process Hearing instead of pursuing an appeal — without properly explaining to them the pros and cons of that strategy — and that the CDP is not ripe until Taxpayer receives a Notice of Federal Tax Lien or Intent to Levy. If the Taxpayer is in escrow for example and a Notice of Federal Tax Lien hits — and the buyer does not want to deal with the hassle — they can just walk away (which is their right to do in California unless all contingencies have been removed).
Was waiting for the CDP worth it?
The NTFL may also impact their employment, ability to obtain credit or a HELOC, etc.
Wrongful Bank Levy
There is probably not a single person alive who would describe the IRS as a well-oiled machine. Several times throughout our many years of tax practice, we have been contacted by Taxpayers who were hit with a wrongful/premature levy. This can occur in a situation in which the Collection Due Process Hearing request is not processed in time before the levy was issued. Moreover, removing the wrongful levy can take a very long time — all the while the Taxpayer has lost out on the ability to access those funds — which may severely impact their day-to-day life.
Interest Continues to Accrue
It can take several months — if not years — for the Taxpayer to receive the final notice sufficient to pursue a CDP. Still, interest continues to accrue all the while — and if the Taxpayer is not successful at the Collection Due Process Hearing or at Tax Court — they could be in for a significantly increased fine based on the accrued interest — in addition to the Form 3520 penalty.
Form 3520 Penalties & Collection Due Process Hearing
If the Taxpayer has not had the penalty removed and chooses not to prepay the penalty — at some point in the future they will receive either a Notice of Federal Tax Lien or Intent To Levy and Right To a Hearing. It is at that point that the Taxpayer will have the opportunity to submit a Collection Due Process (CDP) request using form 12153. The main benefit of a form 12153 request is that the Taxpayer will have the opportunity to present the case to an Officer who has significant authority to resolve the matter. In addition, the Taxpayer has the chance to prove reasonable cause. Moreover, if the penalty abatement is rejected, the taxpayer will then still have the opportunity to bring the matter to Tax Court — armed with multiple legal arguments.
Litigating Form 3520 Penalty in Tax Court
Most of the time, Tax Court cases involving Form 3520 penalties involve a significant amount of penalties. As a result, certain small case options are not available. Thus, Taxpayers should keep in mind that the Attorney’s Fees for an experienced Attorney are usually very high — and billed hourly — which may not be feasible for many Taxpayers. Moreover, since Form 3520 penalties are not considered tax liabilities, but rather reporting penalties — in general courts have not been as inclined to provide the Taxpayers with much deference in using Tax Court to reduce a Foreign Gift Reporting Penalty as opposed to a tax liability or tax penalty.
Federal Court for Litigating Foreign Gift Penalties
Another option for the Taxpayer is to pay the penalty up front and then seek a refund from the IRS. If the refund request is denied — then the Taxpayer can sue in District Court. The idea behind having to pay upfront is the Flora Rule — which requires a Taxpayer to pay the debt at the IRS before moving forward in pursuing a federal claim. It is important to note that Form 3520 penalties are not the result of tax liability — but rather the result of a reporting penalty. Therefore, the Taxpayer may want to take the position that similar to a recent ruling in an FBAR case, prepayment is not required up-front.
CAP (9423) Before Tax Court
When it comes to litigating Form 3520 penalties, CAP 9423 is not the proper mechanism. A Taxpayer cannot file a Collection Appeal Process (CAP 9423) and then use this as a basis for going to Tax Court. Moreover, technically, a Taxpayer cannot even submit a CDP 12153 after they submitted a form 9423. Thus, if the Taxpayer is considering litigation and wants to dispute a penalty, then when they begin receiving notices such as a 503 — they have to fight the urge to file a form 9423 if their intent is to dispute and litigate the outcome.
From 9423 to 12153 to Tax Court
It is not uncommon for a CPA or other Tax Practitioner who is very nervous about having not initially filed the form 3520, and then received a CP15 notice — and subsequent rejection of the initial protest letter — to go ahead and file inform 9423 in response to the 504/503 letter.
Is all hope lost?
Of course not.
If this was to happen and Taxpayer later received a Notice of Federal Tax Lien or Intent to Levy — they would still try their hand at filing a form 12153 — because if they can show there are some different issues in order to distinguish it from the 9423 — then they may be able to pursue the CDP and then go to Tax Court.
For example, Form 9423 is not technically even used to dispute a penalty. Thus, if the purpose of the 12153 (CDP) is to dispute the penalty via Reasonable Cause whereas the filing of the 9423 was to stave off collections and/or filed by mistake — Taxpayer may still have a lane to pursue Tax Court.
In other words, don’t be scared by online fear-monger attorneys with little to no actual international tax experience, trying to get you to turn the blame on your CPA who was just trying to be diligent and fix a mistake they have made.
Chances are your Form 3520 Penalty met the “electronically assessed” exception under IRC 6751 for being assessed through electronic means — but maybe not. Making a request under FOIA has its pros and cons — and timing is important. If you are considering making a FOIA request — you should speak with a Board-Certified Tax Specialist first.
International Tax Lawyers Represent Clients Worldwide
Our International Tax Lawyer team specializes exclusively in international tax, and specifically IRS offshore disclosure.
Contact our firm for assistance.