- 1 US Australia Tax Treaty
- 2 Australia Income & U.S. Tax
- 3 U.S. Australia Tax Treaty
- 4 Related Australia U.S. Tax Issues
- 5 General Concept: U.S. Tax Status and Worldwide Income
- 6 Common US Australia Income Tax Treaty Issues
- 7 Residence Under the Australian-U.S. Tax Treaty (Article 4)
- 8 Income From Real Property (Article 6)
- 9 Dividend Income (Article 10)
- 10 Interest Income (Article 11)
- 11 Alienation of Property (Article 13A)
- 12 Pensions, Annuities, Alimony and Child Support (Article 18)
- 13 Article 18, Paragraph 1
- 14 Article 18, Paragraph 2
- 15 Article 18, Paragraph 3
- 16 *Superannuation U.S. Tax Treaty Rules
- 17 Governmental Remuneration (Article 19)
- 18 Article 22 Relief from Double Taxation
- 19 Saving Clause
- 20 Saving Clause (Limitation)
- 21 IRS Offshore Reporting Not Limited by Treaty
- 22 Are You Out of IRS Compliance?
- 23 Golding & Golding: About Our International Tax Law Firm
US Australia Tax Treaty
At Golding & Golding, we represent numerous taxpayers each year in IRS matters involving United States and Australia cross-border tax issues.
Australia Income & U.S. Tax
The Australia Tax Treaty with the United States impacts the taxation of real estate, retirement, pension, & business income (and more) for residents & non-residents.
U.S. Australia Tax Treaty
The U.S. and Australia have entered into a bilateral income Tax Treaty, in which residents are taxed at a reduced rate — and sometimes have certain taxes exempted.
The U.S. Australia tax treaty can be very complicated, especially for Australian citizens who have U.S. status, and/or reside in the U.S.
Related Australia U.S. Tax Issues
While the U.S & Australia Tax Treaty is highly complicated, our aim is to provide a basic understanding of how the tax treaty works, so that we can help individuals determine their tax status on various issues that may impact U.S. tax liability — and help them assess if they are out of compliance.
-On issues involving Australia Superannuation Reporting. specifically, we have a separate article.
-On issues involving U.S. Tax on Australia Superannuation specifically, we have a separate article.
-On issues involving general U.S. Taxation of Australian Income we have a separate article.
General Concept: U.S. Tax Status and Worldwide Income
The U.S is one of the only countries across the globe to implement a worldwide taxation model for individuals.
Therefore, for U.S. Persons, the general proposition is that a U.S. person is subject to U.S. tax and reporting on their worldwide income — despite what their country of residence in, or the source of the income.
*A U.S. person can try to show a closer connection or other treaty position to limit, exclude, or eliminate U.S. Tax — but the baseline position is that a U.S. person is subject to U.S. tax and reporting on their worldwide income — despite what their country of residence in.
Common US Australia Income Tax Treaty Issues
This summary is written primarily for Australian Nationals who have U.S. Tax Residence:
Residence Under the Australian-U.S. Tax Treaty (Article 4)
When a tax treaty refers to residence, it is not as simple as just living a few weeks in either country during the year.
There are very specific rules involving residence (which is identified in article 4 of the treaty).
Resident of the U.S.
A “Person” is a resident of the United States if the person is:
a United States corporation; or
(ii) any other person (except a corporation or unincorporated entity treated as a corporation for United States tax purposes) resident in the United States for purposes of its tax, provided that, in relation to any income derived by a partnership, an estate of a deceased individual or a trust, such person shall not be treated as a resident of the United States except to the extent that the income is subject to United States tax as the income of a resident, either in its hands or in the hands of a partner or beneficiary, or,
if that income is exempt from United States tax, is exempt other than because such person, partner or beneficiary is not a United States person according to United States law relating to United States tax.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Article 4 Residence)
Determining residence can be difficult, but for the most part if an individual resides, earns income, and has their general day-to-day life in a country, then that country will be deemed their residence.
*Residence (and tax home) may impact the availability of the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion.
Income From Real Property (Article 6)
Income from Real Property
(1) Income from real property may be taxed by the Contracting State in which such real property is situated.
(2) For the purposes of this Convention: (i) a leasehold interest in land, whether or not improved, shall be regarded as real property situated where the land to which the interest relates is situated; and (ii) rights to exploit or to explore for natural resources shall be regarded as real property situated where the natural resources are situated or sought.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Gains from Real Property Article 6)
If an Australian Person resides in the U.S., but is earning income from real property generated in Australia, Australia can tax the individual, since Australia would be the “Contracting State in which such real property is situated.”
U.S. Tax on Gains from Real Property Article 6
Australia does not have “Exclusive” Tax Rights to real property.
Therefore, If the person is a U.S. person, then the U.S. will tax them as well on their worldwide income, but the person can use a Foreign Tax Credit, to reduce or eliminate an duplicate tax already paid in Australia.
Dividend Income (Article 10)
Dividend Income is more complex:
(1) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States for the purposes of its tax, being dividends to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.
(2) However, those dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident for the purposes of its tax, and according to the law of that State, but:
(a) the tax charged shall not exceed 5 percent of the gross amount of the dividends, if the person beneficially entitled to those dividends is a company which holds directly at least 10 percent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends; and
(b) the tax charged shall not exceed 15 percent of the gross amount of the dividends to the extent to which those dividends are not within sub-paragraph (a), 5 provided that if the relevant law in either Contracting State is varied after the effective date of this provision otherwise than in minor respects so as not to affect its general character, the Contracting States shall consult each other with a view to agreeing to any amendment of this paragraph that may be appropriate
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Dividend Income)
An Australian person receiving dividends from an Australian source, and who is a resident of the other Contracting State (Australian national living in the U.S.), may be taxed by that other state (U.S.) on the income.
Australia can also tax the dividends, but is limited to taxing the dividend income at reduced rates.
**There are several exceptions and limitations.
Interest Income (Article 11)
Interest Income is also very complex:
Interest arising in one of the Contracting States, being interest to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.
(2) However, that interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 percent of the gross amount of the interest
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Interest Income)
Interest arising from Australia, but paid to a resident of the U.S., may be taxed in the U.S.
Non-Technical Summary (Interest Income Non-Exclusive Taxation)
Continuing from the example above, even though the U.S. can tax the income,Australia is not prevented from levying tax on the same income, although the tax is limited.
*Multiple exceptions apply, with common exceptions including those in which a person has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State or performs independent personal services
Alienation of Property (Article 13A)
-Income or gains derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States from the alienation or disposition of real property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Alienation of Property)
An Australian who sold a property in Australia, and who is a resident of the other Contracting State (Australian national living in the U.S.), may be taxed by that other state (U.S.) on the income.
Pensions, Annuities, Alimony and Child Support (Article 18)
This is a heavily reviewed and analyzed section of the treaty, and is subject to interpreation:
We will analyze each paragraph separately:
Article 18, Paragraph 1
Subject to the provisions of Article 19 (Governmental Remuneration), pensions and other similar remuneration paid to an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Article 18, Paragraph 1)
This first paragraph is very general. It just explains that unless a Government pension (or other renumeration) is involved an individual who is a resident of the Australia will only be taxed by Australia for pension earned in Australia (This impacts Dual-Citizens who reside in Australia, but could get caught up in U.S. Tax on worldwide income rules for pension earned in AUS while he is a resident of AUS.
Article 18, Paragraph 2
(2) Social Security payments and other public pensions paid by one of the Contracting States to an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State or a citizen of the United States shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Article 18, Paragraph 2)
If an Australian national resides in the U.S., and received Social Security or other public pension from Australia, can only be taxed by Australia on that income.
Article 18, Paragraph 3
(3) Annuities paid to an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Article 18, Paragraph 3)
If an Australian National resides in the U,.S., and earns Annuity, then only the U.S. can tax the Annuities
*Superannuation U.S. Tax Treaty Rules
When it comes to superannuation, on first pass it would seem relatively simple. Superannuation is a foreign retirement plan, and the United States and Australia have entered into a tax treaty, which includes issues involving retirement.
Therefore, the superannuation should be covered by the treaty.
One are the main complications is that the superannuation is not specifically identified in the treaty. Some people argue a Super is just Social Security, and not taxable in the U.S.
Others disagree, and argue that Australia already has a social assistance program and therefore it is treated as pension or trust — which significantly impacts the income tax rules.
If this is the main issue you have, we have authored a detailed article limited to this specific issue of US tax on a Australia Superannuation.
Governmental Remuneration (Article 19)
This Article provides that remuneration, including pensions, paid by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision, local authority or agency thereof to a citizen of that State for the performance of governmental functions is exempt from tax by the other State.
Non-Technical Summary & Example
If an Australian National resides in the U,.S., and earns government pension from Australia, then that income is EXEMPT from tax in the U.S.
Article 22 Relief from Double Taxation
Subject to paragraph (4) and in accordance with the provisions and subject to the limitations of the law of the United States (as it may be amended from time to time without changing the general principle hereof), in the case of the United States, double taxation shall be avoided as follows: (a) the United States shall allow to a resident or citizen of the United States as a credit against United States tax the appropriate amount of income tax paid to Australia; and
(b) in the case of a United States corporation owning at least 10 percent of the voting stock of a company which is a resident of Australia from which it receives dividends in any taxable year, the United States shall also allow as a credit against United States tax the appropriate amount of income tax paid to Australia by that company with respect to the profits out of which such dividends are paid.
*Article 22 of the Convention is amended by omitting in paragraph (1) “sub-paragraph (1)(b)” and substituting “sub-paragraph (1)(b)(i)” in each place it occurs.
Non-Technical Summary & Example (Relief From Double Taxation)
The U.S. will allow for a Foreign Tax Credit for citizens or residents of the U.S. on taxes due to the U.S., against any tax already paid to Australia and vice versa
*Exceptions and limitations apply.
(3) Notwithstanding any provision of this Convention, except paragraph (4) of this Article, a Contracting State may tax its residents (as determined under Article 4 (Residence)) and individuals electing under its domestic law to be taxed as residents of that state, and by reason of citizenship may tax its citizens, as if this Convention had not entered into force. For this purpose, the term “citizen” shall, with respect to United States source income according to United States law relating to United States tax, include a former citizen whose loss of citizenship had as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of tax, but only for a period of 10 years following such loss.
What is the Saving Clause?
The Saving Clause basically says the contacting states (Australia and U.S.) can disregard the treaty, when applicable, and still tax the resident/citizen as if the treaty was not in place.
Saving Clause (Limitation)
(4) The provisions of paragraph (3) shall not affect: (a) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under paragraph (2) of Article 9 (Associated Enterprises), paragraph (2) or (6) of Article 18 (Pensions, Annuities, Alimony and Child Support), Article 22 (Relief from Double Taxation), 23 (Non-Discrimination), 24 (Mutual Agreement Procedure) or paragraph (1) of Article 27 (Miscellaneous); or (b) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under Article 19 (Governmental Remuneration), 20 (Students) or 26 (Diplomatic and Consular Privileges) upon individuals who are neither citizens of, nor have immigrant status in, that State (in the case of benefits conferred by the United States), or who are not ordinarily resident in that State (in the case of benefits conferred by Australia)
What is a “Limitation” on the Savings Clause?
There are certain articles and paragraphs which cannot be overridden by the Savings clause.
IRS Offshore Reporting Not Limited by Treaty
The Tax Treaty does not limit reporting.
Therefore, whether or not the Super is taxable for example, does not limit the reporting.
The IRS can (and does) routinely issues extensive fines and penalties for non-compliance of reporting of Australian Bank Accounts, Investments, Foreign Corporations, and Superannuations.
Are You Out of IRS Compliance?
If you have unreported income, accounts, assets, or investments from the UK or multiple countries – we can help.
Golding & Golding: About Our International Tax Law Firm
Golding & Golding specializes exclusively in international tax, and specifically IRS offshore disclosure.
Contact our firm today for assistance.