- 1 25% UK Tax-Free Lump-Sum Pension Payment
- 2 1. First, What is a Pension?
- 3 2. Second, How is a Pension (Generally) Taxed? 17(1)(a)
- 4 3. What if the Pension is Tax-Exempt?
- 5 4. What if it is a Lump-Sum Payment? 17(2)
- 6 Saving Clause
- 7 What does the IRS say about it?
- 8 Do you have Unreported UK Income or Account/Assets to Report?
- 9 We Specialize in IRS Offshore Disclosure
- 10 What is the Board Certified Tax Law Specialist Credential?
- 11 Sean M. Golding, JD, LL.M., EA (Board Certified Tax Law Specialist)
- 12 Tax Law Specialty Firms are Best Prepared to Represent You in Specialized Tax Matters
- 13 Why Do We Care?
- 14 Serious Tax Matters; Serious Tax Consequences
- 15 Golding & Golding – IRS Offshore Disclosure Lawyers
- 16 What Type of Attorney Should I Hire?
- 17 We Specialize in Safely Disclosing Foreign Money
- 18 Who Decides to Disclose Unreported Money?
- 19 Beware of Copycat Law Firms
- 20 IRS Penalty List
- 20.1 Failure to File
- 20.2 Failure to Pay
- 20.3 Civil Tax Fraud
- 20.4 A Penalty for failing to file FBARs
- 20.5 A Penalty for failing to file Form 8938
- 20.6 A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520
- 20.7 A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520-A
- 20.8 A Penalty for failing to file Form 5471
- 20.9 A Penalty for failing to file Form 5472
- 20.10 A Penalty for failing to file Form 926
- 20.11 A Penalty for failing to file Form 8865
- 20.12 Fraud penalties imposed under IRC §§ 6651(f) or 6663
- 20.13 A Penalty for failing to file a tax return imposed under IRC § 6651(a)(1)
- 20.14 A Penalty for failing to pay the amount of tax shown on the return under IRC § 6651(a)(2)
- 20.15 An Accuracy-Related Penalty on underpayments imposed under IRC § 6662
- 20.16 Possible Criminal Charges related to tax matters include tax evasion (IRC § 7201)
- 20.17 A person convicted of tax evasion
- 21 What Should You Do?
- 22 Be Careful of the IRS
- 23 4 Types of IRS Voluntary Disclosure Programs
Is a 25% UK Tax Free-Lump Sum Pension Payment Taxable in the US?: When a UK Person receives a 25% lump-sum payment (tax-free) as a resident of the U.S., Article 17 of the Tax Treaty becomes the main focus of the analysis. And the US /UK Tax treaty becomes even more complicated.
Each article of the Treaty has exceptions, exceptions to the exceptions, limitations, and exclusions.
Any Tax “Professional” who tells you that a treaty is “easy”..has no idea how to read a treaty. It’s proof that a little knowledge is dangerous to the general public.
One of the most common questions we receive on issues involving the UK and US treaty is how the bilateral tax treaty laws apply to the 25% lump-sum distribution of pension in the UK, which is otherwise tax-free in the UK.
Generally, the question of pensions and the UK treaty involves Article 17 of the Tax Treaty, and the Saving Clause.
We will provide you our analysis of the United States’ ability to tax the 25% UK Tax-Free-Lump Sum Pension.
25% UK Tax-Free Lump-Sum Pension Payment
As in anything legal:
- You generally analyze from general to specific; and
- There are always exceptions, exclusions, and limitations to be aware of.
1. First, What is a Pension?
Pension Defined (Article 3, Paragraph 1, Sub-paragraph (o))
The term “pension scheme” means any plan, scheme, fund, trust or other arrangement established in a Contracting State which is: (i) generally exempt from income taxation in that State; and (ii) operated principally to administer or provide pension or retirement benefits or to earn income for the benefit of one or more such arrangements.
While the term “pension” generally would include both periodic and lump-sum payments, paragraph 2 of the Article provides specific rules to deal with lump-sum payments, so they are not subject to the general rule of paragraph 1.
Plain English Definition
A pension is the type of retirement fund in which money vests either during employment or at the end of employment — and then the person is entitled to payments at retirement.
2. Second, How is a Pension (Generally) Taxed? 17(1)(a)
1) (a) Pensions and other similar remuneration beneficially owned by a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
Paragraph 1 provides as a general rule in subparagraph (a), that the State of residence of the beneficial owner has the exclusive right to tax pensions and other similar remuneration.
The country you reside, is the country that taxes your pension distributions.
For example, Justin resides in the United States. He receives pension payments, which are not tax-exempt in the UK while he resides in the US.
The U.S. is country of residence and therefore has the right to tax Justin on the retirement pension income, because Justin resides in the U.S.
3. What if the Pension is Tax-Exempt?
“1(b) [T]he amount of any such pension or remuneration paid from a pension scheme established in the other Contracting State that would be exempt from taxation in that other State if the beneficial owner were a resident thereof shall be exempt from taxation in the first-mentioned State”
“However, the State of residence, under subparagraph (b), must exempt from tax any amount of such pensions or other similar remuneration that would be exempt from tax in the State in which the pension scheme is established if the recipient were a resident of that State.”
Thus, for example, a distribution from a U.S. “Roth IRA” to a U.K. resident would be exempt from tax in the United Kingdom to the same extent the distribution would be exempt from tax in the United States if it were distributed to a U.S. resident.
The same is true with respect to distributions from a traditional IRA to the extent that the distribution represents a return of nondeductible contributions.
Similarly, if the distribution were not subject to tax when it was “rolled over” into another U.S. IRA (but not, for example, to a U.K. pension scheme), then the distribution would be exempt from tax in the United Kingdom.
If a person is residing in one country (Country B) and receiving pension payments from the other country (Country A), in which the pension payments are considered tax-free or tax-exempt in that other country (Country A), the payments will be considered tax-exempt in the country of residence (Country B).
Example (US Person Residing in the UK) – Roth IRA
Maria resides in the UK but is receiving a tax-free Roth IRA.
Since the Roth IRAs are tax-free at the time of distribution in the United States, it is considered tax-free or tax-exempt to Maria as a resident in the UK.
In other words, the UK cannot tax Maria on the tax-exempt Roth IRA because had she been residing in the US — it would be considered tax-exempt.
Stated another way: the UK is not going to tax an otherwise tax-exempt United States pension even though the state of residence (UK) has the right to tax pension payments.
4. What if it is a Lump-Sum Payment? 17(2)
This is where the majority of issues originate.
17 (2): “Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, a lump-sum payment derived from a pension scheme established in a Contracting State and beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.”
- Lump-Sum Payment
- Pension Scheme
- Taxable only in First State
The most important part about this analysis is what is considered a “lump-sum payment.“
For example: Is a lump-sum payment the full amount of the pension or does it include partial payments? There are some definitions scattered around the IRC, Regulations, etc. — but they are less than clear.
On the one hand, it would seem that since the treaty does not state “complete disposition of the pension,” an argument can be made that the 25% lump-sum distribution is a lump-sum payment that should be covered under this portion of the treaty.
Stated differently, if the IRS meant that it only involves complete lump-sum payments, then the IRS would have emphasized “complete disposition” in the treaty.
Since the IRS does not use that phraseology, it is at a minimum at least up for interpretation.
Here are two schools of thought regarding the U.S. tax position on the lump-sum payment and summary of how the IRS has ruled on a prior occasion (not binding)
Argument 1: The 25% Lump-Sum is not taxable in the U.S.
It’s what you want to hear, right?
The Treaty does not say “complete distribution,” it says lump-sum. A lump-sum payment can be a partial payment or else it would say specifically that partial payments do not qualify.
Therefore, the argument is that the pension scheme was established in the contracting state (UK) and therefore a resident of the other contracting state (US) will only be taxed in the first mentions day (UK).
*Note: Even if this interpretation holds water, the IRS can still call in back-up (aka “Saving Clause”).
Argument 2: U.S. has the right to Tax the 25% Lump Sum Pension Distribution
Step 1 – Article 17 (1)(a)
The US has the right to tax the pension of a person who is a resident of the US unless the pension is exempt in the other country.
Since the person resides in the U.S., the U.S. has the general right to tax the pension distributions.
Step 2 The Pension is not tax exempt in the UK 17(1)(b)
Let’s assume it is a pension that is taxable in the UK, but that the UK allows you to take a 25% tax-free distribution from an otherwise taxable pension.
The entire pension is not tax exempt. Instead, the UK is carving out a 25% tax-free distribution from an otherwise taxable pension. Therefore, the pension is taxable (save for that 25% distribution).
Stated Another Way: Only the Partial Payment distribution is tax-free in UK for 25% value, but that does not make the entire Pension tax-free in the UK
Result: This is not a tax-exempt pension and therefore 17(1)(b) be does not apply.
The 25% lump sum payment is not expressly stated or defined in the Treaty.
Generally, when a person refers to “lump sum payment” they are referring to a total disposition
Example: Would you like your payment as an annuity, or in a lump-sum payment?
Therefore, the 25% lump sum payment does not qualify as a lump sum payment under 17(2).
Stated Another Way: a lump some payment presumes you are receiving the full amount of your pension payment, in a “lump sum”
Result: This is not a lump-sum payment in accordance with 17(2) and therefore, the US reserves the right to tax it.
Exceptions to the Saving Clause do not include Section 17(2), so the Saving Clause applies to 17(2).
Therefore, even if you can show that the 25% tax-free lump sum payment qualified as a lump sum payment under 17(2), the IRS can still tax you…
…and that seems to be the IRS’ general position.
What does the IRS say about it?
In 2008, the IRS issued a letter and provided the following explanation:
This letter responds to your request for information dated March 5, 2008. In your letter, you requested certain information about the tax treatment of a lump-sum distribution from a qualified U.K. pension scheme paid to a U.S. resident.
Under the Internal Revenue Code, the United States generally taxes its residents on their worldwide income, regardless of their citizenship or the source of their income. However, an income tax treaty to which the United States is a party could change the application of the law.
The United States has an income tax treaty with the United Kingdom (the Treaty). Article 17(1) of the Treaty provides that: a) Pensions and other similar remuneration beneficially owned by a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State. b) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph a) of this paragraph, the amount of any such pension or remuneration paid from a pension scheme established in the other Contracting State that would be exempt from taxation in that other State if the beneficial owner were a resident thereof shall be exempt from taxation in the first-mentioned State.
Article 17(2) of the Treaty provides that: Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, a lump-sum payment derived from a pension scheme established in a Contracting State and beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State. GENIN-111967-08 2
Although Article 17(2) provides that the Contracting State in which the pension scheme is established has the exclusive right to tax a lump-sum payment, Article 1(4) of the Treaty contains a “saving clause” that allows the United States to tax its residents and citizens as if the Treaty had not come into effect.
Article 1(4) of the Treaty provides that: Notwithstanding any provision of this Convention except paragraph 5 of this Article, a Contracting State may tax its residents (as determined under Article 4 (Residence)), and by reason of citizenship may tax its citizens, as if this Convention had not come into effect.
Article 1(5) of the Treaty provides a number of exceptions to the saving clause, but there is no exception for Article 17(2).
Therefore, the saving clause overrides Article 17(2) and allows the United States to tax a lump-sum payment received by a U.S. resident from a U.K. pension plan.
Do you have Unreported UK Income or Account/Assets to Report?
At Golding & Golding, we specialize exclusively in IRS Offshore Disclosure and Amnesty. We represent numerous clients from the UK each year, and we can help you.
We Specialize in IRS Offshore Disclosure
Unlike other areas of International Tax, you need a law firm that practices exclusively in the area of IRS Offshore Disclosure, and your attorney should be a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist.
We’re here to help you.
What is the Board Certified Tax Law Specialist Credential?
Once an Attorney earns the prestigious Board Certified Tax Law Specialist credential, it proves to the general public that the attorney is dedicated to tax law, and has real tax law practice experience as an Attorney.
Few tax attorneys have passed the tax speciality exam (regarded as one of the most difficult tax exams in the country) — and met the additional education, experience, and recommendation requirements necessary for certification.
Once a person becomes “Board Certified in Tax,” it shows they have met the following requirements:
- Advanced tax education
- Extensive tax law experience
- Attorney & Judge recommendations for certification
In California for example, there are 200,000 active Attorneys, with tens of thousands of Attorneys practicing in some area of tax — and only 350 Tax Attorneys have successfully earned the designation.
Less than 1% of Attorneys nationwide have earned the credential.
Sean M. Golding, JD, LL.M., EA (Board Certified Tax Law Specialist)
IRS Offshore Disclosure is ALL we do.
Our Managing Partner, Sean M. Golding, JD, LLM, EA earned an LL.M. (Master’s in Tax Law) from the University of Denver and is also an Enrolled Agent (the highest credential awarded by the IRS, and authorizes him to represent clients nationwide.)
Mr. Golding and his team have successfully handled several hundred IRS Offshore/Voluntary Disclosure Procedure cases. Whether it is a simple or complex case, safely getting clients into compliance is our passion, and we take it very seriously.
He is frequently called upon to lecture and write on issues involving IRS Voluntary Disclosure.
Tax Law Specialty Firms are Best Prepared to Represent You in Specialized Tax Matters
Unless the firm has 50-100 attorneys, with a $25 million operating budget, a successful boutique tax-law firm will almost always have all of the attorneys in the firm devote the firms’s time, energy, and resources to one specific area of tax.
In other words, all the attorneys in the boutique tax firm practice the same, single area of tax law.
Some common niche areas of tax law include:
- Tax Litigation
- Employment Tax
- Sales Tax
- Offshore Voluntary Disclosure
For example, in employment tax, all tax attorneys in the firm handle employment tax related cases. In sales tax, all the tax attorneys in the firm handle sales tax. It may be “Sales Tax” in various different fields and industries — but the firm will limit the niche practice to sales tax.
The same is true for Offshore Voluntary Disclosure. If a firm handles Offshore Voluntary Disclosure, then all tax attorneys at the firm should be handling the same area of tax law.
This area of Offshore Disclosure law is constantly evolving, and becoming infinitely more complicated — including highly complex issues involving:
- International Cryptocurrency
- Increased Schedule B Enforcement (Paul Manafort)
- Foreign Gifts
- Foreign Inheritance
- Foreign Business
- Foreign Trusts
If a small firm has attorneys practicing 5-10 different areas of tax law (and even non-tax law related matters) – it can put your case at a severe disadvantage.
Why? Because it is impossible for these types of “general tax firms” to establish set protocols, policies and procedures sufficient to handle all the complexities and nuances for multiple different types of niche tax law areas.
At our tax specialty firm, we handle matters involving Offshore Voluntary Disclosure, and each case is led by one or more highly experienced attorneys.
This guarantees that your case gets the time and dedication it deserves.
Why Do We Care?
Because each month, like clockwork, we get calls from individuals in an utter state of panic, because the “Expert” or “Specialist” who made themselves out to be knowledgeable, has no real knowledge of Offshore Disclosure.
It turns out, the Attorney has never handled a complex Offshore Disclosure.
Oftentimes, Golding & Golding is called upon to fix these messes. Click Here to learn about some of the representative matters we have handled.
Serious Tax Matters; Serious Tax Consequences
Getting hit with an eggshell audit, reverse-eggshell audit, or IRS Special Investigation involving offshore money is serious business – it’s not like getting a traffic ticket or speeding ticket.
The ramifications of serious tax inquiries by the IRS (especially in the area of Offshore Disclosure and Compliance), can result in serious consequences such as monetary fines, penalties and even jail time.
Golding & Golding – IRS Offshore Disclosure Lawyers
We are the only attorneys worldwide that focuses exclusively in IRS Offshore Disclosure, and each and every case is led and managed by Mr. Golding and his team.
What Type of Attorney Should I Hire?
IRS Voluntary Disclosure is a specialized area of law. An IRS Voluntary Disclosure is a complex undertaking. It requires the coordination of several moving parts, including strategy development, Tax Preparation, Legal Analysis, Negotiation and more.
You should hire a Tax Attorney who has the following credentials:
- ~20 Years of Private Practice experience representing his/her own clients
- Experienced in Criminal and Civil Tax Litigation
- Experienced representing clients in Eggshell and Reverse Eggshell Audits.
- Advanced Tax Degree (LL.M.)
- EA (Enrolled Agent) or CPA (Certified Public Accountant)
- Preferably a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist
We Specialize in Safely Disclosing Foreign Money
We have successfully handled a diverse range of IRS Voluntary Disclosure and International Tax Investigation/Examination cases involving FBAR, FATCA, and high-stakes matters for clients around the globe (In over 65 countries!)
Whether it is a simple or complex case, safely getting clients into compliance is our passion, and we take it very seriously.
Examples of areas of tax we handle
- Unfiled Tax Returns
- Unreported Income Penalties
- International Tax Investigations (FATCA and more)
- FBAR Investigations
- International Tax Evasion
- Structuring Investigations
- Eggshell and Reverse Eggshell Audits
- Divorce and Offshore Accounts
- Foreign Mutual Funds
- Foreign Life Insurance
- Fixing Quiet Disclosure
- Foreign Real Estate Income
- Foreign Real Estate Sales
- Foreign Earned Income Exclusion
- Subpart F Income
- Foreign Inheritance
- Foreign Pension
- Form 3520
- Form 5471
- Form 8621
- Form 8865
- Form 8938 (FATCA)
Who Decides to Disclose Unreported Money?
What Types of Clients Do we Represent?
We represent Attorneys, CPAs, Doctors, Investors, Engineers, Business Owners, Entrepreneurs, Professors, Athletes, Actors, Entry-Level staff, Students, Former/Current IRS Agents and more.
You are not alone, and you are not the only one to find himself or herself in this situation.
Beware of Copycat Law Firms
Unlike other attorneys who call themselves specialists or experts in Voluntary Disclosure but are not “Board Certified,” handle 5-10 different areas of tax law, purchase multiple keyword specific domain names, and even practice outside of tax, we are absolutely dedicated to Offshore Voluntary Disclosure.
*Click here to learn the benefits of retaining a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist with advanced tax credentials.
IRS Penalty List
The following is a list of potential IRS penalties for unreported and undisclosed foreign accounts and assets:
Failure to File
If you do not file by the deadline, you might face a failure-to-file penalty. If you do not pay by the due date, you could face a failure-to-pay penalty. The failure-to-file penalty is generally more than the failure-to-pay penalty.
The penalty for filing late is usually 5 percent of the unpaid taxes for each month or part of a month that a return is late. This penalty will not exceed 25 percent of your unpaid taxes. If you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax.
Failure to Pay
f you do not pay your taxes by the due date, you will generally have to pay a failure-to-pay penalty of ½ of 1 percent of your unpaid taxes for each month or part of a month after the due date that the taxes are not paid. This penalty can be as much as 25 percent of your unpaid taxes. If both the failure-to-file penalty and the failure-to-pay penalty apply in any month, the 5 percent failure-to-file penalty is reduced by the failure-to-pay penalty.
However, if you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax. You will not have to pay a failure-to-file or failure-to-pay penalty if you can show that you failed to file or pay on time because of reasonable cause and not because of willful neglect.
Civil Tax Fraud
If any part of any underpayment of tax required to be shown on a return is due to fraud, there shall be added to the tax an amount equal to 75 percent of the portion of the underpayment which is attributable to fraud.
A Penalty for failing to file FBARs
The civil penalty for willfully failing to file an FBAR can be as high as the greater of $100,000 or 50 percent of the total balance of the foreign financial account per violation. See 31 U.S.C. § 5321(a)(5). Non-willful violations that the IRS determines were not due to reasonable cause are subject to a $10,000 penalty per violation.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 8938
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 35 percent of the gross reportable amount, except for returns reporting gifts, where the penalty is five percent of the gift per month, up to a maximum penalty of 25 percent of the gift.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520-A
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 5 percent of the gross value of trust assets determined to be owned by the United States person.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 5471
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 5472
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or to keep certain records regarding reportable transactions, is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 926
The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is ten percent of the value of the property transferred, up to a maximum of $100,000 per return, with no limit if the failure to report the transfer was intentional.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 8865
Penalties include $10,000 for failure to file each return, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return, and ten percent of the value of any transferred property that is not reported, subject to a $100,000 limit.
Fraud penalties imposed under IRC §§ 6651(f) or 6663
Where an underpayment of tax, or a failure to file a tax return, is due to fraud, the taxpayer is liable for penalties that, although calculated differently, essentially amount to 75 percent of the unpaid tax.
A Penalty for failing to file a tax return imposed under IRC § 6651(a)(1)
Generally, taxpayers are required to file income tax returns. If a taxpayer fails to do so, a penalty of 5 percent of the balance due, plus an additional 5 percent for each month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues may be imposed. The penalty shall not exceed 25 percent.
A Penalty for failing to pay the amount of tax shown on the return under IRC § 6651(a)(2)
If a taxpayer fails to pay the amount of tax shown on the return, he or she may be liable for a penalty of .5 percent of the amount of tax shown on the return, plus an additional .5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof that the amount remains unpaid, not exceeding 25 percent.
An Accuracy-Related Penalty on underpayments imposed under IRC § 6662
Depending upon which component of the accuracy-related penalty is applicable, a taxpayer may be liable for a 20 percent or 40 percent penalty
Filing a false return (IRC § 7206(1)) and failure to file an income tax return (IRC § 7203). Willfully failing to file an FBAR and willfully filing a false FBAR are both violations that are subject to criminal penalties under 31 U.S.C. § 5322. Additional possible criminal charges include conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims (18 U.S.C. § 286) and conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States (18 U.S.C. § 371).
A person convicted of tax evasion
Filing a false return subjects a person to a prison term of up to three years and a fine of up to $250,000. A person who fails to file a tax return is subject to a prison term of up to one year and a fine of up to $100,000. Failing to file an FBAR subjects a person to a prison term of up to ten years and criminal penalties of up to $500,000. A person convicted of conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims is subject to a prison term of up to not more than 10 years or a fine of up to $250,000. A person convicted of conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States is subject to a prison term of not more than five years and a fine of up to $250,000.
What Should You Do?
Everyone makes mistakes. If at some point that you should have been reporting your foreign income, accounts, assets or investments the prudent and least costly (but most effective) method for getting compliance is through one of the approved IRS offshore voluntary disclosure program.
Be Careful of the IRS
With the introduction and enforcement of FATCA for both Civil and Criminal Penalties, renewed interest in the IRS issuing FBAR Penalties, crackdown on Cryptocurrency (and IRS joining J5), the termination of OVDP, and recent foreign bank settlements with the IRS…there are not many places left to hide.
4 Types of IRS Voluntary Disclosure Programs
There are typically four types of IRS Voluntary Disclosure programs, and they include:
- Traditional (IRM) IRS Voluntary Disclosure Program
- Streamlined Domestic Offshore Procedures (SDOP)
- Streamlined Foreign Offshore Procedures (SFOP)
- Reasonable Cause (RC)
Contact Us Today; Let us Help You.
Sean holds a Master's in Tax Law from one of the top Tax LL.M. programs in the country at the University of Denver, and has also earned the prestigious Enrolled Agent credential. Mr. Golding is also a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist Attorney (A designation earned by Less than 1% of Attorneys nationwide.)
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