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Offshore Disclosure Attorney – International Tax Lawyer, Sean M. Golding (Board Certified Tax Law Specialist) IRC 6038 (2019) – 5471 Foreign Corporation Automatic Penalty & Amnesty – Golding & Golding

IRC 6038 (2019) – 5471 Foreign Corporation Automatic Penalty & Amnesty

Tax season is upon us again.

And, the with IRS offshore compliance enforcement at an all-time high, it is important for U.S. Persons with foreign entities (especially foreign corporations) to be in tax and reporting compliance.

Common IRC 6038 Questions we will answer:

  • Who Has To Report?
  • Who is a U.S. Person?
  • What are some of the more common forms?
  • What if a person does not report under Section 6038?
  • What are the Penalties?
  • How to Avoid, Limit or Reduce Penalties?
  • How Golding & Golding can help you

This article will focus on:

  • Reporting Requirements
  • Reasonable Cause
  • Offshore Amnesty

IRC 6038 — Who Has to Report

Generally Informational Reporting refers to U.S. Person.

Who is a U.S. Person (Corporation and Individual)

Before you get too excited, “U.S. Person” is more than just U.S. Citizens. For individuals it includes:

  • U.S. Citizens
  • Legal Permanent Residents/Green Card Holders
  • Foreign Persons who meet the Substantial Presence Test

Form 5471

IRS Form 5471 (Information Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Corporationsis filed with the IRS when a person has an interest in a Foreign Corporation.

The 5471 Form can be intense, and oftentimes requires the assistance of a Tax Attorney (especially if it is being filed untimely)

Form 5471 – Five (5) Different Categories of Filers

Category 1: (Previously Reserved)

Category is now used by U.S. shareholders of specified foreign corporations (SFCs) subject to the provisions of section 965

Category 2 

A person who owns at least 10% or more of the foreign corporation

Category 3  

A person acquires stock in total of stock ownership exceeds 10%

Category 4

A U.S. person who had control (defined below) of a foreign corporation for an uninterrupted period of at least 30 days during the annual accounting period

Category 5

A U.S. shareholder who owns stock in a foreign corporation that is a CFC for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during any tax year of the foreign corporation, and who owned that stock on the last day of that year.

General Reporting Requirements (selected portions)


“(A) the name, the principal place of business, and the nature of business of such entity, and the country under whose laws such entity is incorporated (or organized in the case of a partnership);


(B) in the case of a foreign  corporation, its post-1986 undistributed earnings (as defined in section 902(c)


(C) a balance sheet for such entity listing assets, liabilities, and capital; (D)transactions between such entity and—


(i) such person


(ii) any corporation or partnership which such person controls, and


(iii) any United States person owning, at the time the transaction takes place—


  • in the case of a foreign corporation, 10 percent or more of the value of any class of stock outstanding of such corporation, and

  • (II) in the case of a foreign partnership, at least a 10-percent interest in such partnership; and

  • in the case of a foreign corporation, a description of the various classes of stock outstanding, and a list showing the name and address of, and number of shares held by, each United States person who is a shareholder of record owning at any time during the annual accounting period 5 percent or more in value of any class of stock outstanding of such foreign corporation, and

  • information comparable to the information described in clause ) in the case of a foreign partnership.

  • The Secretary may also require the furnishing of any other information which is similar or related in nature to that specified in the preceding sentence or which the Secretary determines to be appropriate to carry out the provisions of this title.”

What Happens if a Person does Not Report?

If a person does not report, they may be subject to certain fines and penalties.

Penalty Information (Failure to Furnish)

If any person fails to furnish, within the time prescribed under paragraph (2) of subsection (a), any information with respect to any foreign business entity required under paragraph (1) of subsection

(a), such person shall pay a penalty of $10,000 for each annual accounting period with respect to which such failure exists.

Increase in penalty where failure continues after notification If any failure described in paragraph (1) continues for more than 90 days after the day on which the Secretary mails notice of such failure to the United States person, such person shall pay a penalty (in addition to the amount required under paragraph (1)) of $10,000 for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) during which such failure continues with respect to any annual accounting period after the expiration of such 90-day period.

The increase in any penalty under this paragraph shall not exceed $50,000.

IRS Issues Form 5471 “Automatic Penalties” 

As provided by the IRS:


[A] separate penalty may apply to each Form 5471 which is filed after the due date of the income tax return.  This penalty will apply whether or not any tax is due on Form 1120.


IRC Section 6038(a) requires information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations (Form 5471) and describes the information required to be reported on this form.  


IRC Section 6038(b)(1) provides for a monetary penalty of $10,000 for each Form 5471 that is filed after the due date of the income tax return (including extensions) or does not include the complete and accurate information described in Section 6038(a).

What if I am Out of Compliance?

If you are out of IRS compliance, the penalties can be severe. Therefore, you may consider entering the IRS offshore voluntary disclosure/tax amnesty or submit a reasonable cause statement, before it is too late.

What is the Board Certified Tax Law Specialist Credential?

Once an Attorney earns the prestigious Board Certified Tax Law Specialist credential, it proves to the general public that the attorney is dedicated to tax law, and has real tax law practice experience as an Attorney.

Few tax attorneys have passed the tax speciality exam (regarded as one of the most difficult tax exams in the country) — and met the additional education, experience, and recommendation requirements necessary for certification.

Once a person becomes “Board Certified in Tax,” it shows they have met the following requirements:

  • Advanced tax education 
  • Extensive tax law experience
  • Attorney & Judge recommendations for certification

In California for example, there are 200,000 active Attorneys, with tens of thousands of Attorneys practicing in some area of tax — and only 350 Tax Attorneys have successfully earned the designation.

Less than 1% of Attorneys nationwide have earned the credential.

Sean M. Golding, JD, LL.M., EA (Board Certified Tax Law Specialist)

IRS Offshore Disclosure is ALL we do.

Our Managing Partner, Sean M. Golding, JD, LLM, EA  earned an LL.M. (Master’s in Tax Law) from the University of Denver and is also an Enrolled Agent (the highest credential awarded by the IRS, and authorizes him to represent clients nationwide.)

Mr. Golding and his team have successfully handled several hundred IRS Offshore/Voluntary Disclosure Procedure cases. Whether it is a simple or complex case, safely getting clients into compliance is our passion, and we take it very seriously.

He is frequently called upon to lecture and write on issues involving IRS Voluntary Disclosure.

Tax Law Specialty Firms are Best Prepared to Represent You in Specialized Tax Matters

Unless the firm has 50-100 attorneys, with a $25 million operating budget, a successful boutique tax-law firm will almost always have all of the attorneys in the firm devote the firms’s time, energy, and resources to one specific area of tax.

In other words, all the attorneys in the boutique tax firm practice the same, single area of tax law.

Some common niche areas of tax law include:

  • Tax Litigation
  • Employment Tax
  • Sales Tax
  • Offshore Voluntary Disclosure

For example, in employment tax, all tax attorneys in the firm handle employment tax related cases. In sales tax, all the tax attorneys in the firm handle sales tax. It may be “Sales Tax” in various different fields and industries — but the firm will limit the niche practice to sales tax.

The same is true for Offshore Voluntary Disclosure. If a firm handles Offshore Voluntary Disclosure, then all tax attorneys at the firm should be handling the same area of tax law.

This area of Offshore Disclosure law is constantly evolving, and becoming infinitely more complicated — including highly complex issues involving:

  • FBAR
  • FATCA
  • PFIC
  • CFC
  • International Cryptocurrency
  • J5
  • Increased Schedule B Enforcement (Paul Manafort)
  • Foreign Gifts
  • Foreign Inheritance
  • Foreign Business 
  • Foreign Trusts
  • OVDP
  • IRM
  • SDOP
  • SFOP

If a small firm has attorneys practicing 5-10 different areas of tax law (and even non-tax law related matters) – it can put your case at a severe disadvantage.

Why? Because it is impossible for these types of “general tax firms” to establish set protocols, policies and procedures sufficient to handle all the complexities and nuances for multiple different types of niche tax law areas.

At our tax specialty firm, we handle matters involving Offshore Voluntary Disclosure, and each case is led by one or more highly experienced attorneys.

This guarantees that your case gets the time and dedication it deserves.

Why Do We Care?

Because each month, like clockwork, we get calls from individuals in an utter state of panic, because the “Expert” or “Specialist” who made themselves out to be knowledgeable, has no real knowledge of Offshore Disclosure.

It turns out, the Attorney has never handled a complex Offshore Disclosure.

Oftentimes, Golding & Golding is called upon to fix these messes. Click Here to learn about some of the representative matters we have handled.

Serious Tax Matters; Serious Tax Consequences

Getting hit with an eggshell audit, reverse-eggshell audit, or IRS Special Investigation involving offshore money is serious business – it’s not like getting a traffic ticket or speeding ticket.

The ramifications of serious tax inquiries by the IRS (especially in the area of Offshore Disclosure and Compliance), can result in serious consequences such as monetary fines, penalties and even jail time.

Golding & Golding – IRS Offshore Disclosure Lawyers

We are the only attorneys worldwide that focuses exclusively in IRS Offshore Disclosure, and each and every case is led and managed by Mr. Golding and his team.

What Type of Attorney Should I Hire?

IRS Voluntary Disclosure is a specialized area of law. An IRS Voluntary Disclosure is a complex undertaking. It requires the coordination of several moving parts, including strategy development, Tax Preparation, Legal Analysis, Negotiation and more.

You should hire a Tax Attorney who has the following credentials:

  • ~20 Years of Private Practice experience representing his/her own clients
  • Experienced in Criminal and Civil Tax Litigation
  • Experienced representing clients in Eggshell and Reverse Eggshell Audits.
  • Advanced Tax Degree (LL.M.)
  • EA (Enrolled Agent) or CPA (Certified Public Accountant)
  • Preferably a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist

We Specialize in Safely Disclosing Foreign Money

We have successfully handled a diverse range of IRS Voluntary Disclosure and International Tax Investigation/Examination cases involving FBAR, FATCA, and high-stakes matters for clients around the globe (In over 65 countries!)

Whether it is a simple or complex case, safely getting clients into compliance is our passion, and we take it very seriously.

Examples of areas of tax we handle

Who Decides to Disclose Unreported Money?

What Types of Clients Do we Represent?

We represent Attorneys, CPAs, Doctors, Investors, Engineers, Business Owners, Entrepreneurs, Professors, Athletes, Actors, Entry-Level staff, Students, Former/Current IRS Agents and more.

You are not alone, and you are not the only one to find himself or herself in this situation.

Beware of Copycat Law Firms

Unlike other attorneys who call themselves specialists or experts in Voluntary Disclosure but are not “Board Certified,” handle 5-10 different areas of tax law, purchase multiple keyword specific domain names, and even practice outside of tax, we are absolutely dedicated to Offshore Voluntary Disclosure.

*Click here to learn the benefits of retaining a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist with advanced tax credentials.

IRS Penalty List

The following is a list of potential IRS penalties for unreported and undisclosed foreign accounts and assets:

Failure to File

If you do not file by the deadline, you might face a failure-to-file penalty. If you do not pay by the due date, you could face a failure-to-pay penalty. The failure-to-file penalty is generally more than the failure-to-pay penalty.

The penalty for filing late is usually 5 percent of the unpaid taxes for each month or part of a month that a return is late. This penalty will not exceed 25 percent of your unpaid taxes. If you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax.

Failure to Pay

f you do not pay your taxes by the due date, you will generally have to pay a failure-to-pay penalty of ½ of 1 percent of your unpaid taxes for each month or part of a month after the due date that the taxes are not paid. This penalty can be as much as 25 percent of your unpaid taxes. If both the failure-to-file penalty and the failure-to-pay penalty apply in any month, the 5 percent failure-to-file penalty is reduced by the failure-to-pay penalty.

However, if you file your return more than 60 days after the due date or extended due date, the minimum penalty is the smaller of $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax. You will not have to pay a failure-to-file or failure-to-pay penalty if you can show that you failed to file or pay on time because of reasonable cause and not because of willful neglect.

Civil Tax Fraud

If any part of any underpayment of tax required to be shown on a return is due to fraud, there shall be added to the tax an amount equal to 75 percent of the portion of the underpayment which is attributable to fraud.

A Penalty for failing to file FBARs

The civil penalty for willfully failing to file an FBAR can be as high as the greater of $100,000 or 50 percent of the total balance of the foreign financial account per violation. See 31 U.S.C. § 5321(a)(5). Non-willful violations that the IRS determines were not due to reasonable cause are subject to a $10,000 penalty per violation.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 8938

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 35 percent of the gross reportable amount, except for returns reporting gifts, where the penalty is five percent of the gift per month, up to a maximum penalty of 25 percent of the gift.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520-A

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 5 percent of the gross value of trust assets determined to be owned by the United States person.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 5471

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 5472

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or to keep certain records regarding reportable transactions, is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 926

The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is ten percent of the value of the property transferred, up to a maximum of $100,000 per return, with no limit if the failure to report the transfer was intentional.

A Penalty for failing to file Form 8865

Penalties include $10,000 for failure to file each return, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return, and ten percent of the value of any transferred property that is not reported, subject to a $100,000 limit.

Fraud penalties imposed under IRC §§ 6651(f) or 6663

Where an underpayment of tax, or a failure to file a tax return, is due to fraud, the taxpayer is liable for penalties that, although calculated differently, essentially amount to 75 percent of the unpaid tax.

A Penalty for failing to file a tax return imposed under IRC § 6651(a)(1)

Generally, taxpayers are required to file income tax returns. If a taxpayer fails to do so, a penalty of 5 percent of the balance due, plus an additional 5 percent for each month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues may be imposed. The penalty shall not exceed 25 percent.

A Penalty for failing to pay the amount of tax shown on the return under IRC § 6651(a)(2)

If a taxpayer fails to pay the amount of tax shown on the return, he or she may be liable for a penalty of .5 percent of the amount of tax shown on the return, plus an additional .5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof that the amount remains unpaid, not exceeding 25 percent.

An Accuracy-Related Penalty on underpayments imposed under IRC § 6662

Depending upon which component of the accuracy-related penalty is applicable, a taxpayer may be liable for a 20 percent or 40 percent penalty

Possible Criminal Charges related to tax matters include tax evasion (IRC § 7201)

Filing a false return (IRC § 7206(1)) and failure to file an income tax return (IRC § 7203). Willfully failing to file an FBAR and willfully filing a false FBAR are both violations that are subject to criminal penalties under 31 U.S.C. § 5322.  Additional possible criminal charges include conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims (18 U.S.C. § 286) and conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States (18 U.S.C. § 371).

A person convicted of tax evasion

Filing a false return subjects a person to a prison term of up to three years and a fine of up to $250,000. A person who fails to file a tax return is subject to a prison term of up to one year and a fine of up to $100,000. Failing to file an FBAR subjects a person to a prison term of up to ten years and criminal penalties of up to $500,000.  A person convicted of conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims is subject to a prison term of up to not more than 10 years or a fine of up to $250,000.  A person convicted of conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States is subject to a prison term of not more than five years and a fine of up to $250,000.

What Should You Do?

Everyone makes mistakes. If at some point that you should have been reporting your foreign income, accounts, assets or investments the prudent and least costly (but most effective) method for getting compliance is through one of the approved IRS offshore voluntary disclosure program.

Be Careful of the IRS

With the introduction and enforcement of FATCA for both Civil and Criminal Penalties, renewed interest in the IRS issuing FBAR Penalties, crackdown on Cryptocurrency (and IRS joining J5), the termination of OVDP, and recent foreign bank settlements with the IRS…there are not many places left to hide.

4 Types of IRS Voluntary Disclosure Programs

There are typically four types of IRS Voluntary Disclosure programs, and they include:

Contact Us Today; Let us Help You.


International Tax Lawyers - Golding & Golding, A PLC

International Tax Lawyers - Golding & Golding, A PLC

Golding & Golding: Our International Tax Lawyers practice exclusively in the area of IRS Offshore & Voluntary Disclosure. We represent clients in 70 different countries. Managing Partner, Sean M. Golding, JD, LL.M., EA and his team have represented thousands of clients in all aspects of IRS offshore disclosure and compliance during his 20-year career as an Attorney. Mr. Golding's articles have been referenced in such publications as the Washington Post, Forbes, Nolo and various Law Journals nationwide.

Sean holds a Master's in Tax Law from one of the top Tax LL.M. programs in the country at the University of Denver, and has also earned the prestigious Enrolled Agent credential. Mr. Golding is also a Board Certified Tax Law Specialist Attorney (A designation earned by Less than 1% of Attorneys nationwide.)
International Tax Lawyers - Golding & Golding, A PLC