FBAR Willfulness (2018) – Lower Threshold & Standard of Proof Required
The IRS continues to tighten the noose around anybody caught willfully failing to report or disclose foreign accounts or income.
This is very important for any individual who may have willfully (even recklessly aka Reckless Disregard) failed to report foreign accounts, assets, income, or investments.
This is because the IRS OVDP “Program” ends on September 28, 2018.
Moreover, the IRS also has recently enacted several International Tax Enforcement Groups dedicated to investigating and discovering undisclosed foreign money.
Finally, in reviewing the recent Taxpayer Advocate’s summary about foreign informational return penalties, it is clear that the IRS has no intention of slowing down their international tax enforcement activities – especially in situations in which a person was willful, as the number of people penalized for foreign accounts and business interests continues to grow.
- 1 Recent Case: Garrity
- 2 Garrity – Summary and Excerpts
- 3 Procedural Background
- 4 Willfulness Includes Reckless Conduct
- 5 Criminal-Like Penalty Means Higher Standard of Proof, Right?
- 6 Standard of Proof – Preponderance of the Evidence
- 7 Shouldn’t It At Least Be Clear and Convincing Evidence?
- 8 IRS Chief Counsel Believes it Should be Clear & Convincing
- 9 The Court’s Rationale re: Memo
- 10 No Precedence re: FBAR and Clear/Convincing Evidence
- 11 What This FBAR Decision Means To You?
- 12 Golding & Golding, A PLC
Recent Case: Garrity
Garrity is bad news, because it affirms two major Issues:
- Willful Penalties apply to Reckless Disregard; and
- The Standard of Proof is “Preponderance of The Evidence” which is the LOWEST Legal Standard permitted under law.
Garrity – Summary and Excerpts
In the current case, Plaintiff filed this suit to reduce to judgment a civil penalty the Internal Revenue Service assessed against Paul G. Garrity, Sr., under 31 U.S.C. § 5321(a)(5), for his alleged willful failure to report his interest in a foreign account he held in 2005, in violation of 31 U.S.C. § 5314.
More specifically, the U.S. Government is seeking collection from Mr. Paul G. Garrity, Sr.’s estate.
The Government filed this action on February 20, 2015 to collect an outstanding civil penalty, known as the Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (“FBAR”) penalty, from the estate of Mr. Garrity, Sr., who died in 2008.
The Government had assessed the penalty against Mr. Garrity, Sr. for his allegedly willful failure to timely report his financial interest in, and/or his authority over, a foreign bank account for the 2005 calendar year, as required by 31 U.S.C. § 5314
and its implementing regulations. (ECF No. 1.)
The balance of the penalty as of February 20, 2015 was $1,061,181.09. Jury selection is currently scheduled for June 6, 2018.
Willfulness Includes Reckless Conduct
The court noted that: “Defendants point to no other authority that would warrant deviating from the Supreme Court’s holdings that statutory willfulness in the civil context covers reckless conduct.”
“Defendants concede that numerous courts have found that willfulness in the civil FBAR context includes reckless conduct. (ECF No. 106 at 11.) See United States v. Williams, 489 F. App’x 655, 658 (4th Cir. 2012) (reversing the district court’s ruling, as “at a minimum, Williams’s undisputed actions establish reckless conduct, which satisfies the proof requirement under § 5314”);
• United States v. Kelley-Hunter, 281 F. Supp. 3d 121, 124 (D.D.C. 2017)
• United States v. Katwyk, No. CV 17-3314-GW, 2017 WL 6021420, at *4 (C.D. Cal. Oct. 23, 2017)
• Bedrosian v. United States, Civ. No. 15-5853, 2017 WL 4946433, at *3 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 20, 2017);
• United States v. Bohanec, 263 F. Supp. 3d 881, 888-89 (C.D. Cal. 2016)
• United States v. Bussell, No. CV 15- 02034 SJO, 2015 WL 9957826, at *5 (C.D. Cal. Dec. 8, 2015)
• United States v. McBride, 908 F. Supp. 2d 1186, 1204 (D. Utah 2012)
• United States v. Williams, No. 1:09-cv-437, 2010 WL 3473311, at *4 (E.D. Va. Sept. 1, 2010), rev’d on other grounds
Defendants cite no case in which a court has held to the contrary. Rather, despite the clear distinction the Supreme Court has drawn between willfulness in the civil and criminal contexts, the cases Defendants principally rely on are criminal cases.
See Ratzlaf v. United States, 510 U.S. 135 (1994) (holding that the government had to prove defendant acted with knowledge that hisconduct was unlawful to sustain a criminal conviction for a willful violation of an antistructuring provision)
United States v. Sturman, 951 F.2d 1466, 1476 (6th Cir. 1991) (applying the standard for willfulness articulated in Cheek v. United States, 498 U.S. 192 (1991), “voluntary, intentional violation of a known legal duty,” to criminal violations of 31 U.S.C. § 5314).
Criminal-Like Penalty Means Higher Standard of Proof, Right?
Wrong…The Court states that based on these facts, the mere fact that the monetary penalties are higher does not necessitate an increased penalty. Rather, the standard of proof that applies is the lowest penalty, which is called “Preponderance of the Evidence.”
Standard of Proof – Preponderance of the Evidence
Preponderance of the Evidence is the lowest standard of proof, and typically is considered just more than 50%. This standard of proof is significantly less than the Clear and Convincing Evidence (~75%) or Beyond a Reasonable Doubt (~95%) standards.
As provided by the court: The starting point for this inquiry is the well-established principle that “[i]n a typical civil suit for money damages, plaintiffs must prove their case by a preponderance of the evidence.”
Herman & MacLean v. Huddleston, 459 U.S. 375, 387 (1983). See also United States v. Regan, 232 U.S. 37,46-47 (1914) (holding that a civil action by the government to collect a monetary penalty “is to be conducted and determined according to the same rules and with the same incidents as are other civil actions”).
Shouldn’t It At Least Be Clear and Convincing Evidence?
Nope. As further provided by the court: The Supreme Court noted in Huddleston that where Congress has not specified a standard of proof, the Court has applied the clear and convincing evidence standard in civil matters only “where particularly important individual interests or rights are at stake,” such as in cases involving termination of parental rights, involuntary commitment, and deportation. 459 U.S. at 389.
Observing that “imposition of even severe civil sanctions that do not implicate such interests has been permitted after proof by a preponderance of the evidence,” the Court held that the preponderance of the evidence standard applied to an action involving an alleged fraud in the sale or purchase of securities. Id. at 389-90. In doing so, the Court described the preponderance of the evidence standard as the one “generally applicable in civil actions.” Id.
Using these principles, every court that has answered the question before me has held that the preponderance of the evidence standard governs suits by the government to recover civil FBAR penalties.
- See Bedrosian v. United States, No. CV 15-5853, 2017 WL 3887520, at *1 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 5, 2017)
- United States v. Bohanec, 263 F. Supp. 3d 881, 889 (C.D. Cal. 2016)
- United States v. McBride, 908 F. Supp. 2d 1186, 1201-02 (D. Utah 2012)
- United States v. Williams, No. 1:09- cv-437, 2010 WL 3473311, at *1, 5 (E.D. Va. Sept. 1, 2010) (
IRS Chief Counsel Believes it Should be Clear & Convincing
In the Chief Counsel Memorandum 200603026 (January 20, 2006), it provides the following guidance on the standard of proof applicable to the section 5321(a)(5) penalty for willful violations:
A second question in the November 23 memorandum, with respect to the willfulness issue, is whether the criteria for assertion of the civil FBAR penalty are the same as the burden of proof that the Service has when asserting the civil fraud penalty under IRC section 6663. Although there are no cases that address this issue with respect to the civil FBAR penalty, we expect the answer to be yes. This is because of the inherent difficulty of proving, or disproving, a state of mind (willfulness) at the time of a violation.”
The burden of proof for criminal cases for establishing willfulness is to provide proof “beyond a reasonable doubt.” Although the same definition for willfulness applies [for civil cases] (“a voluntary intentional violation of a known legal duty”), the Service would have a lesser burden of proof to meet with respect to the civil FBAR penalty than the criminal penalty. We expect that a court will find the burden in civil FBAR cases to be that of providing “clear and convincing evidence,” rather than merely a “preponderance of the evidence.”
The clear and convincing evidence standard is the same burden the Service must meet with respect to civil tax fraud cases where the Service also has to show the intent of the taxypayer at the time of the violation.
Courts have traditionally applied the clear and convincing standard with respect to fraud cases in general, not just to tax fraud cases, because just as it is difficult to show intent, it is also difficult to show a lack of intent. The higher standard of clear and convincing evidence offers some protection for an individual who may be wrongly accused of fraud.
The Court’s Rationale re: Memo
The court provided: That Defendants may be liable for a substantially larger sum of money for a willful FBAR violation than if the Government had pursued a civil tax fraud action does not warrant a higher standard of proof.
As Huddleston and Grogan indicate, it is the type of interest or right involved that triggers a higher standard of proof, not the amount in controversy; courts have not viewed cases involving “even severe civil sanctions” to implicate “important individual interests or rights” to warrant a higher standard of proof.
See also Halo v. Electronics, Inc. v. Pulse Electronics, Inc., — U.S. —, 136 S. Ct. 1923, 1934 (2016) (rejecting requirement that willful patent infringement behavior warranting enhanced damages be proved by clear and
Ramirez v. T&H Lemont, Inc., 845 F.3d 772, 777-81 (7th Cir. 2016) (holding that preponderance of the evidence standard applies to dismissal of a civil suit as a discovery sanction)
Fishman Transducers, Inc. v. Paul, 684 F.3d 187, 193 (1st Cir. 2012) (holding that preponderance of the evidence standard applies to proof of willfulness for the purpose of obtaining more than single damages or profit disgorgement in trademark action).
Moreover, the Chief Counsel’s statement that “[c]ourts have traditionally applied the clear and convincing standard with respect to fraud cases in general” (ECF No. 106-1 at 3) does not account for differences in how courts treat fraud under federal statutes and the common law, respectively.
See Master-Halco, Inc. v. Scillia Dowling & Natarelli, LLC, 739 F. Supp. 2d 109,122-23 (D. Conn. 2010) (discussing differences between standards of proof for statutory fraud and common law fraud, and holding that clear and convincing evidence was the appropriate standard of proof for civil conspiracy to commit fraud and aiding and abetting fraud under state
No Precedence re: FBAR and Clear/Convincing Evidence
The court noted that Defendants do not point to case law holding that the clear and convincing evidence standard applies to civil FBAR penalty cases.
What This FBAR Decision Means To You?
It means most circuit courts are coming to the conclusion that Willful FBAR penalties should be issued when the conduct is merely Reckless, and the Government only has to show Preponderance of the Evidence…despite the IRS’ own Chief Counsel acknowledging that Clear and Convincing Evidence should presumably be the standard.
Golding & Golding, A PLC
We have successfully represented clients in more than 1000 streamlined and voluntary disclosure submissions nationwide, and in over 70-different countries.
We are the “go-to” firm for other Attorneys, CPAs, Enrolled Agents, Accountants, and Financial Professionals across the globe.