IRS Investigates Foreign Assets & Accounts – Certified Tax Specialist
IRS Investigates Foreign Assets & Accounts – Certified Tax Specialist
For many years, individuals, businesses and estates that knowingly or recklessly (aka willfully) evaded paying tax on foreign income, or did not report foreign accounts, assets, or investments to the IRS had a get out of jail free card – OVDP.
IRS Investigates Foreign Assets & Accounts
But, with the recent IRS Announcement that OVDP will terminating soon, coupled with the introduction of several International Tax Enforcement Groups, the risk of Criminal Investigations, Fines and Penalties have increased significantly.
Sean M. Golding, JD, LL.M., EA – Certified Tax Law Specialist
Our Managing Partner, Sean M. Golding, JD, LLM, EA is the only Attorney nationwide who has earned the Certified Tax Law Specialist credential and specializes in IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Matters.
In addition to earning the Certified Tax Law Certification, Sean also holds an LL.M. (Master’s in Tax Law) from the University of Denver and is also an Enrolled Agent (the highest credential awarded by the IRS.)
He is frequently called upon to lecture and write on issues involving IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure.
Less than 1% of Tax Attorneys Nationwide
Out of more than 200,000 practicing attorneys in California, less than 400 attorneys have achieved this Certified Tax Law Specialist designation.
The exam is widely regarded as one of (if not) the hardest tax exam given in the United States for practicing Attorneys. It is a designation earned by less than 1% of attorneys.
What is OVDP?
OVDP is the traditional Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program. It is a government program that allows applicants to safely get into IRS compliance, by simply coming forward and proactively reporting offshore and foreign money.
It provides the applicant with a set penalty amount, and the assurance that as long as they fully comply, the applicant will avoid criminal prosecution or an IRS audit regarding these foreign monies.
The OVDP ‘Program’ is Ending
September 28, 2018 will be the last day you can submit to OVDP. This is a very complicated issue, because due to the IRS being backed up, it may not provide individuals with the safety net of submitting a preclearance letter prior to entering the program.
That is because even if you submit a preclearance letter, if you have not heard back from the IRS prior to the September 28, 2018 date — you still have to submit the full first phase of the submission process.
This is not necessarily a big problem, as long as you have experienced counsel – the real problem exists in what happens if you miss the time to enter the program.
FATCA Puts You At Great Risk
FATCA is the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. In accordance with FATCA, more than 110 foreign countries and more than 300,000 Foreign Financial Institutions (FFIs) have agreed to proactively report US account holder information to the IRS. A U.S. account holder does not mean US citizen. It typically means that for anybody that the Foreign Financial Institution has any information indicating that the person may be a U.S. person (such as ever having a US address, Green-Card Holder, former Visa Holder, etc.) they will report the individual’s account and income information to the IRS.
And, once the IRS has that information, if it turns out that you have not been in compliance and/or have not reported the income on your tax return — you may be subject to significant fines and penalties.
Oftentimes, even if a person has a ‘dummy’ foreign corporation, partnership, or other type of joint venture, the entity will have its own bank accounts and specified foreign assets. And, if the IRS uncovers this information, you could have several issues to contend with including Form 5471 Penalties and IRC 965 Reporting Issues — both which can be staggering.
International Tax Enforcement Groups
In lieu of allowing individuals to get into compliance with traditional OVDP, the IRS is going straight for the jugular, and simply penalizing you from the get-go, and making you play defense. The IRS will no longer be providing the carrot and the stick of OVDP — presumably because they do not have to. Back in the day, the IRS needed you to come forward in order to discover the foreign accounts, assets, etc. but with more than 300,000 FFIs proactively reporting, the IRS is no longer reliant on you coming forward.
Rather, the IRS have developed several International Tax Enforcement Groups, led by agents that the IRS has coined “tax experts.” They will proactively evaluate, assess, and analyze the information they are already receiving through FATCA and other means to go after individuals, estates and businesses — and issue them excessively high fines and penalties.
These penalties can range in the hundreds of thousands of dollars or even millions of dollars in situations in which the IRS believes you were willful.
What Can You Do?
Under most circumstances (but definitely not all), a person who submits to traditional OVDP was willful. For these individuals, they will truly have to take a long hard look at their actions, and determine whether their actions were willful, and what steps if any they want to take to resolve it.
*If a person was non-willful, then they can still submit to the streamlined program since the IRS (as of today) has not indicated that they are terminating the program.
**But, all potential applicants should keep in mind that as recent as a few months ago of the date of this post, the IRS indicated they were not terminating OVDP, and if they did…they would provide at least one year’s notice. In reality, the IRS provided will be cancelling the program, and are only providing applicants with a six month warning.
IRS Offshore Penalty List
A Penalty for failing to file FBARs
United States citizens, residents and certain other persons must annually report their direct or indirect financial interest in, or signature authority (or other authority that is comparable to signature authority) over, a financial account that is maintained with a financial institution located in a foreign country if, for any calendar year, the aggregate value of all foreign financial accounts exceeded $10,000 at any time during the year. The civil penalty for willfully failing to file an FBAR can be as high as the greater of $100,000 or 50 percent of the total balance of the foreign financial account per violation. See 31 U.S.C. § 5321(a)(5). Non-willful violations that the IRS determines were not due to reasonable cause are subject to a $10,000 penalty per violation.
FATCA Form 8938
Beginning with the 2011 tax year, a penalty for failing to file Form 8938 reporting the taxpayer’s interest in certain foreign financial assets, including financial accounts, certain foreign securities, and interests in foreign entities, as required by IRC § 6038D. The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520
Annual Return to Report Transactions With Foreign Trusts and Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts. Taxpayers must also report various transactions involving foreign trusts, including creation of a foreign trust by a United States person, transfers of property from a United States person to a foreign trust and receipt of distributions from foreign trusts under IRC § 6048. This return also reports the receipt of gifts from foreign entities under IRC § 6039F. The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 35 percent of the gross reportable amount, except for returns reporting gifts, where the penalty is five percent of the gift per month, up to a maximum penalty of 25 percent of the gift.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 3520-A
Information Return of Foreign Trust With a U.S. Owner. Taxpayers must also report ownership interests in foreign trusts, by United States persons with various interests in and powers over those trusts under IRC § 6048(b). The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns or for filing an incomplete return, is the greater of $10,000 or 5 percent of the gross value of trust assets determined to be owned by the United States person.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 5471
Information Return of U.S. Persons with Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations. Certain United States persons who are officers, directors or shareholders in certain foreign corporations (including International Business Corporations) are required to report information under IRC §§ 6035, 6038 and 6046. The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 5472
Information Return of a 25% Foreign-Owned U.S. Corporation or a Foreign Corporation Engaged in a U.S. Trade or Business. Taxpayers may be required to report transactions between a 25 percent foreign-owned domestic corporation or a foreign corporation engaged in a trade or business in the United States and a related party as required by IRC §§ 6038A and 6038C. The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns, or to keep certain records regarding reportable transactions, is $10,000, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 926
Return by a U.S. Transferor of Property to a Foreign Corporation. Taxpayers are required to report transfers of property to foreign corporations and other information under IRC § 6038B. The penalty for failing to file each one of these information returns is ten percent of the value of the property transferred, up to a maximum of $100,000 per return, with no limit if the failure to report the transfer was intentional.
A Penalty for failing to file Form 8865
Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Partnerships. United States persons with certain interests in foreign partnerships use this form to report interests in and transactions of the foreign partnerships, transfers of property to the foreign partnerships, and acquisitions, dispositions and changes in foreign partnership interests under IRC §§ 6038, 6038B, and 6046A. Penalties include $10,000 for failure to file each return, with an additional $10,000 added for each month the failure continues beginning 90 days after the taxpayer is notified of the delinquency, up to a maximum of $50,000 per return, and ten percent of the value of any transferred property that is not reported, subject to a $100,000 limit.
Fraud penalties imposed under IRC §§ 6651(f) or 6663
Where an underpayment of tax, or a failure to file a tax return, is due to fraud, the taxpayer is liable for penalties that, although calculated differently, essentially amount to 75 percent of the unpaid tax.
A Penalty for failing to file a tax return imposed under IRC § 6651(a)(1)
Generally, taxpayers are required to file income tax returns. If a taxpayer fails to do so, a penalty of 5 percent of the balance due, plus an additional 5 percent for each month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues may be imposed. The penalty shall not exceed 25 percent.
A Penalty for failing to pay the amount of tax shown on the return under IRC § 6651(a)(2)
If a taxpayer fails to pay the amount of tax shown on the return, he or she may be liable for a penalty of .5 percent of the amount of tax shown on the return, plus an additional .5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof that the amount remains unpaid, not exceeding 25 percent.
An Accuracy-Related Penalty on underpayments imposed under IRC § 6662
Depending upon which component of the accuracy-related penalty is applicable, a taxpayer may be liable for a 20 percent or 40 percent penalty
Possible Criminal Charges related to tax matters include tax evasion (IRC § 7201)
Filing a false return (IRC § 7206(1)) and failure to file an income tax return (IRC § 7203). Willfully failing to file an FBAR and willfully filing a false FBAR are both violations that are subject to criminal penalties under 31 U.S.C. § 5322. Additional possible criminal charges include conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims (18 U.S.C. § 286) and conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States (18 U.S.C. § 371).
A person convicted of tax evasion
Filing a false return subjects a person to a prison term of up to three years and a fine of up to $250,000. A person who fails to file a tax return is subject to a prison term of up to one year and a fine of up to $100,000. Failing to file an FBAR subjects a person to a prison term of up to ten years and criminal penalties of up to $500,000. A person convicted of conspiracy to defraud the government with respect to claims is subject to a prison term of up to not more than 10 years or a fine of up to $250,000. A person convicted of conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud the United States is subject to a prison term of not more than five years and a fine of up to $250,000.
IRS Voluntary Disclosure of Offshore Accounts
Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Tax law is very complex. There are many aspects that go into any particular tax calculation, including the legal status, marital status, business status and residence status of the taxpayer.
When Do I Need to Use Voluntary Disclosure?
Voluntary Disclosure is for individuals, estates, and businesses who are out of compliance with the IRS and the Department of Treasury. What does that mean? It means that for one or more years, you were required to file a U.S. tax return, FBAR or other International Informational Return and you did not do so timely, then you are out of compliance.
Common Un-filed IRS International Tax Forms
Common un-filed international tax forms, include:
- 1040 (Tax Returns)
- Schedule B (Ownership or Signature Authority over Foreign Accounts)
- FBAR (FinCEN 114)
- FATCA (Form 8938)
- Form 3520 (Gift from Foreign Person)
- Form 5471 (Foreign Corporations)
- Form 8621 (Foreign Investments, aka PFIC)
- Form 8865 (Foreign Partnership)
If the IRS discovers that you are out of compliance, you may become subject to extensive fines and penalties – ranging from a warning letter all the way up to tax liens, tax levies, seizures, and criminal investigations. To combat this, you can take the proactive approach and submit to IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure.
Golding & Golding – Offshore Disclosure
At Golding & Golding, we limit our entire practice to offshore disclosure (IRS Voluntary Disclosure of Foreign and U.S. Assets). The term offshore disclosure is a bit of a misnomer, because the term “offshore” generally connotes visions of hiding money in secret places such as the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Malta, or any other well-known tax haven jurisdiction – but that is not the case.
In fact, any money that is outside of the United States is considered to be offshore; the term offshore is not a bad word. In other words, merely because a person has money offshore (a.k.a. overseas or in a foreign country) does not mean that money is the result of ill-gotten gains or that the money is being “hidden.”
It just means it is not in the United States. Many of our clients have assets and bank accounts in their homeland countries and these are considered offshore assets and offshore bank accounts.